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Republic of Rhodesia

Presidential Republic

Internet-TLD .org, .com, .bv (für Bouvet Island, the latter blocked by Norway as consequence of the annexation of West Bouvet)

The Republic of Rhodesia was proclaimed in March 1980 with the Declaration of Amsterdam by Rhodesians who did not want to live in Zimbabwe to which their country was about to be transformed. Its capital region for legal reasons under international law is Rhodesbury Bouvet Island[1], however, de facto the transglobal country with 1.2 mio citizens is being governed from New York City and in São Paulo (Brazíl, HQ of the Rhodesian Intelligence Agency). Its overseas territories are Jaco Island, Santa Luzia and Henderson Island, all annexed since 1980.[2]

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1 History

The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War; and led to the territory of Rhodesia becoming the internationally recognised country Zimbabwe. In order to help those Rhodesians who did not want to live in Zimbabwe, especially non-African Rhodesians, in their escape and after emigration in the diaspora, a General Assembly of 1432 delegates convened in Amsterdam on 31 March 1980, which declared Rhodesia “a nation without territory” and established a government and administration of Rhodesia outside Rhodesia to form a transglobal nation that cares for all Rhodesians, wherever they reside. At the same time, a squad of the newly formed Rhodesian Intelligence Agency (RIS) occupied the northwestern lowlands of the uninhabited and Norwegian-administered island of Bouvet in the Atlantic Ocean, occupying and annexing this piece of land roughly the size of Monaco to manifest the capital city of Rhodesbury. A heliport and basic infrastructure were laid out.[3] This was to underscore the seriousness of the establishment of the second Rhodesian republic[4][5][6][7] which does not oppose the Lancaster House Agreement and has been therefore tacitly accepted or at least tolerated by the world powers.[8][9][10]

Conquest of the western coast of Bouvet Island by Rhodesia in 1980.

At the same occasion, politically neutral James W. Scott was elected president of the Rhodesian Administration.[11][12][13] Like the Republic of Rhodesia itself, the government in exile was not recognized but silently accepted[14] by most countries, avoiding any referencing to current events in Zimbabwe to show that the status quo is accepted without explicitly declaring it.[15][16] In 1986, the administration-in-exile separated from reactionary members and defined an internal critical reappraisal of the past[17] as one of its goals. In 1996, a Rhodesian General Assembly in Tunis elected for the first time a woman, Janette Rowland, as Prime Minister of Rhodesia and Head of Government of the exile administration.[18][19]

2 Declaration of Amsterdam

At the General Assembly in Amsterdam (Netherlands) on 31 March 1980, a declaration was adopted by an overwhelming majority. The Declaration of Amsterdam is therefore considered the survival document of the Republic of Rhodesia without any claim to the territory of Zimbabwe. Immediately after the adoption of the declaration, the newly elected Rhodesian President James W. Scott notified the Secretary General of the United Nations about the proclamation of Rhodesia as a “nation without territory” (despite just having annexed the north-western part of the small Bouvet Island where a U.S. supported RIS squadron conquered the north-western lowlands make Rhodesia a undeniable entity), represented by the Government of the Republic of Rhodesia:[20]

3 Since 1980

The new government was careful not to cause a stir internationally so as not to stand in the way of Zimbabwe's development. At the same time, a constitution was quickly adopted, a government was formed, the annexation of the nations new legal capital Rhodesbury (north-western lowland of Bouvet island), a permanent seat of government and a diplomatic service were established, and the primary task has been to help the Rhodesian diaspora to resettle outside Zimbabwe without regard to the citizen's ethnicity.[21][22]

4 Territories

Despite being completely without own land, Rhodesia gained overseas territories through conquest and annexation:[23]

  • Bouvet Island/Rhodesbury in the southern Atlantic Ocean (annexed 1980)
  • Jaco Island near East-Timor (annexed 2019)
  • Karibu Island, locally called Silkowanzala (annexed in 2016)
  • Spirit of Olympia (locally also known as: Patroklos)
  • North East Caye (annexed in 2019)
  • Etro de Santa Luzia Island in the tropic part of the Atlantic Ocean (annexed 2020)
  • São João Batista (Henderson) Island in the Pacific Ocean (annexed 2021)

All annexation happened without casualties on both sides, peacefully. Rhodesian RIS troops are Rhodesian RIS troops secure the islands disguised as locals, fishermen, real estate agents, tourist guides, etc. to ensure peace and tranquility as well as to keep access to the islands open to day tourists until major construction projects will begin in the late 2020s.

5 Relationship with Zimbabwe

The government of Rhodesia as of 1980 and the country of Zimbabwe maintain a mutual policy of ignoring and non-interference. The 1980 Rhodesian constitution provides for the automatic loss of Rhodesian citizenship and nationality if an individual also holds a passport of Zimbabwe, or is/becomes a resident of Zimbabwe.[24][25]

6 Organization structure

Based on the current constitution, Rhodesia is a presidential republic without a territory, similar to Tibet, Kurdistan or the Jewish people before 1949. The land the country annexed has just the size of Monaco, but it is used as a sign that Rhodesia is still very much existent.

6.1 The President

The office of President of Rhodesia is currently vacant with his duties taken over by RIS Colonel B.G. Harper. From 1980 until 2021 James W. Scott was president and responsible for setting policy guidelines. The president has the right to veto any government decision, including appointments. Moreover, a law does not enter into force until the president has signed it.[26] Executive orders issued by the president also become law when they are countersigned by the relevant minister (called "secretary" according to the Rhodesian constitution).[27][28]

6.2 The Prime Minister

The Prime Minister of Rhodesia is the head of government and the diplomatic service. He manages the day-to-day affairs, presides the cabinet meetings, proposes members of the government to the president for appointment or dismissal. The prime minister is elected by the General Assembly for seven-year terms on the recommendation of the president and is considered confirmed only if he or she receives at least 65% of the votes. So far the Rhodesian Government has had two prime ministers under the 1980 constitution. William Harold held the office from 1980 until his death in 1996, Janette Rowland followed from 1996-2021, Mathilda Born (2021) and Harald Mayer-Blumenthal (since 2021).[29][30]

6.3 General Assembly

The representation of the people is the General Assembly, which has 1432 delegates. The president (“Chairman” according to the constitution) of this parliament is automatically the vice president of the republic.[31] Since 1980, the General Assembly also elects the president and confirms the prime minister.[32][33] It is planned to use digital infrastructure to enable direct elections by the entire Rhodesian people again (outside Zimbabwe, in order to respect its sovereignty).[34]

7 The Governments since 1980

Since the proclamation of the second Republic in 1980, Rhodesia has had three Prime Ministers.

7.1 The Harold Government

The first government-in-exile under William Harold successfully sought to keep out reactionary forces or to incorporate them in such a way that Rhodesia as a nation could enter a new phase of its history within the framework of the Lancaster House Agreement.[35] At the same time, Prime Minister Harold achieved what had always seemed impossible before, a tacit recognition and cooperation with almost half of all states worldwide by the end of his term in office. Many Rhodesians in exile consider this the most significant achievement of the Harold administration, as it made it easier to start over with life in foreign countries.[36]

7.2 The Rowland Government

After the death of William Harold in 1996, Janette Rowland became the first woman prime minister of Rhodesia. She has since been reelected three times by the General Assembly and is considered the "mother of the Rhodesian people" because of her advanced age.[37] Her term of office saw further consolidation of the administration, the diplomatic services, digitalization and the beginning of a critical review of Rhodesia's history.[38] Her current cabinet (as of 2021) is composed of relatively young Rhodesians who have either lived in exile for most of their lives or were born in exile.

7.3 The Born government

On July 13, 2021, the Rowland government fell apart and a new government was formed. The three conservative parties (Conservatives, Reactionary Union and Liberation Front) had decided to form a government without the Liberal Party, which had ruled continuously since 1980. A new cabinet under Prime Minister Mathilda Born (Reactionary Union Party) with just 50.8% of the vote and seats in Parliament was sworn in by President Scott. He wanted to prevent new elections, accepted the personnel list and swore in the new ministers as well as the prime minister. The details of the new government's plans are not yet known, but all three coalition partners are less willing to compromise than the Liberals, who dominated for decades. Initial statements on social media indicate above all illiberal tendencies. Unlike the previous government, the Born administration is dominated by mostly elder white men.[39]

7.4 The RIS government

For reasons unknown, at the end of July 2021, the Rhodesian Intelligence Service Security Council took over the reins of government. The government was dismissed, and the president resigned "voluntarily" after 41 years. The new head of state is Colonel B.G. Harper, Harald Mayer-Blumenrath was appointed Governor General with the duties of a Prime Minister.

The intelligence service and armed forces of Rhodesia

8 Government Security Plan

Rhodesian politicians from all parties, as well as higher-ranking officials, have been considered at high risk for attacks on life and limb since the founding of the second republic. The Rhodesian Intelligence Agency (RIS)[40] has therefore had a department since 1981 to protect all elected officials, as well as higher-ranking opposition politicians and administrative employees.[41] The entire Rhodesian state apparatus has been sustained since 1980 by people who are not 24/7-politicians and who earn their living independently. Division One ("Shielding Service") was therefore professionally trained in cooperation with Western services in the very first year after the establishment of the second republic so that every citizen who wants to participate in Rhodesian democracy is automatically enrolled in a comprehensive protection and shielding program.[42] The RIS has successfully repelled a total of 34 attempted attacks on Rhodesian politicians since 1980. With the end of the 40-year moratorium on silence, 12 of these occurred in 2021 alone, ten of which were attributable to African ethno-nationalists.

8.1 Military Section

The RIS is believed to have an extraordinary strong military section in cooperation with befriended countries. Obviously the RIS even has a small Air Force. All annexations since 1980 were performed by the RIS without casualties on both sides, peacefully. Rhodesian RIS troops secure the islands disguised as locals, fishermen, real estate agents, tourist guides, etc. to ensure peace and tranquility as well as to keep access to the islands open to day tourists until major construction projects will begin in the late 2020s.

9 Citizenship law

According to the citizenship law of March 2021 a person acquires Rhodesian citizenship at the time of birth, if said person is born to a parent of Rhodesian nationality and caucasian ethnicity; that is, the offspring of an ethnic caucasian Rhodesian citizen, even if the parent or grandparent has not exercised his or her right to citizenship. Also ”every honest person with good intentions and a true sympathy for the Rhodesian people and its history may apply for a non-ethnic Rhodesian citizenship. Being a people without land Rhodesian citizenship does make a Rhodesian citizen not eligible to reside in south-east Africa, especially not in Zimbabwe”.[43] Only ethnic caucasian Rhodesians can pass on their Rhodesian citizenship to their offsprings. Honorary citizenships can be granted by the president only and even be passed on the offsprings of the citizen. The Rhodesian passport is, although the nation being in exile, still highly valued outside of Zimbabwe.

10 Rhodesian Intelligence Service (RIS)

The RIS was built up as soon as 1978 with the help of the USA, Chile and former security forces of Portugal from the Salazar era. In Washington D.C. and Santiago (Chile), the political and diplomatic incompetence of the Rhodesian government was observed with considerable horror as was the actions of the Labour government in London. It was known that the British would rather let Rhodesia run into destruction by communist rebels than to forgive Rhodesia declaring independence in 1965 and abolishing the monarchy in 1970. Building up the RIS and training of the staff took place in Brazil where hand-picked Rhodesian soldiers were flown to under the protection of friendly powers. The Salisbury government was led to believe that these individuals had deserted or been captured by the enemy. While the second Republic of Rhodesia was designed as a transglobal nation that cares for all Rhodesians, wherever they reside, preparing to serve a large diaspora, a squad of the Rhodesian Intelligence Agency (RIS) occupied the western lowlands of the uninhabited and Norwegian-administered island of Bouvet in the Atlantic Ocean. This piece of land, roughly the size of Monaco, was annexed as “Rhodesbury” for matters of international law. This was the first annexation that the Republic of Rhodesia performed, however not the last one. It was meant to underscore the seriousness of the establishment of the second Rhodesian republic, and the signal was noticed in capitals around the globe. Since then the RIS has been both, Rhodesias’s intelligence service and its armed force.[44]

11 Weblinks

12 References

  1. Constitution of the Republic of Rhodesia (1980)
  2. Freudig, Alex and RANDnext: The annexation policy of the Republic of Rhodesia since 1980 (Short Analysis 12/20). Zenodo. Geneva, 2020 https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5152355
  3. Constitution of the Republic of Rhodesia, retrieved 28 July 2021
  4. Mwalimu, Charles. The African Law Collection in the Law Library of Congress with Emphasis on Primary Sources of Commonwealth Africa. USA: Publications Committee, AALL Foreign, Comparative and International Law Special Interest Section, 1990
  5. Hole, Hugh Marshall. The Making of Rhodesia. Taylor & Francis, 2018
  6. Mwalimu, Charles. The African Law Collection in the Law Library of Congress with Emphasis on Primary Sources of Commonwealth Africa. USA: Publications Committee, AALL Foreign, Comparative and International Law Special Interest Section, 1990
  7. Hole, Hugh Marshall. The Making of Rhodesia. Vereinigtes Königreich: Taylor & Francis, 2018
  8. Morris-Jones, W. (2013). From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe: Behind and Beyond Lancaster House. Taylor & Francis.
  9. Salt, Beryl. A Pride of Eagles: The Definitive History of the Rhodesian Air Force, 1920-1980.Covos-Day, 2001
  10. O'Meara, Patrick. Rhodesia: Racial Conflict Or Coexistence? Cornell University Press, 2019
  11. Africa Research Bulletin: Political, social, and cultural series. United Kingdom, Blackwell, 1998
  12. Lüthi, Lorenz M.. Cold Wars: Asia, the Middle East, Europe? Cambridge University Press, 2020
  13. Mugari, Zvenyika Eckson. Press Silence in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: News Whiteouts, Journalism and Power. Taylor & Francis, 2020
  14. Mugari, Zvenyika Eckson. Press Silence in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: News Whiteouts, Journalism and Power. Taylor & Francis, 2020
  15. Mbenga, Bernard, and Giliomee, Hermann Buhr. New History of South Africa. Südafrika, Nb Pub Limited, 2007
  16. Turpin, Colin. British Government and the Constitution: Text, Cases, and Materials. Irland, Butterworths, 1999
  17. Munochiveyi, M. Prisoners of Rhodesia: Inmates and Detainees in the Struggle for Zimbabwean Liberation, 1960-1980. Vereinigtes Königreich, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014
  18. Rubert, Steven C., and Rasmussen, R. Kent. Historical dictionary of Zimbabwe. Vereinigtes Königreich, Scarecrow Press, 2001
  19. Official Website of the Rhodesian Administration in exile, retrieved July 1, 2021
  20. The Declaration of Amsterdam (1980)
  21. Encyclopedia of Public International Law. North-Holland, 1981
  22. Hole, H. M.: The Making of Rhodesia. Taylor & Francis, 2018
  23. Freudig, Alex (2020). The annexation policy of the Republic of Rhodesia since 1980 (Short Analysis 12/20). Geneva, 2020 Scientific White Paper
  24. Politics & Government in African States, 1960-1985. Croom Helm, 1986
  25. Mwalimu, Charles. The African Law Collection in the Law Library of Congress with Emphasis on Primary Sources of Commonwealth Africa. USA, Publications Committee, AALL Foreign, Comparative and International Law Special Interest Section, 1990
  26. Midlarsky, Manus I.: The disintegration of political systems: war and revolution in comparative perspective. USA: University of South Carolina Press, 1986
  27. Aron, Raymond. Democracy and totalitarianism: a theory of political systems. USA: University of Michigan Press, 1990
  28. Berg-Schlosser, D.: African Political Systems. Typology and Performance. Sage Publications, 1984
  29. Derbyshire, Ian, and Derbyshire, J. Denis. Political Systems of the World. Chambers, 1989
  30. World Encyclopedia of Political Systems & Parties: Nepal-Zimbabwe, and smaller countries and microstates. USA: Facts on File, 1983
  31. Deborah, Potts, et al. Zimbabwe. Kiribati, Clio Press, 1993
  32. Morris-Jones, W.H.. From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe: Behind and Beyond Lancaster House. Taylor & Francis, 2013 edition
  33. The New York Times 2005 Almanac. USA, Penguin Reference Books, 2004
  34. MacLean, George A. (George Andrew), and O'Neill, Brenda. Ideas, Interests and Issues: Readings in Introductory Politics. Pearson Education Canada, 2006
  35. Encyclopedia of Public International Law. (1992). North-Holland Publishing
  36. Politics & Government in African States, 1960-1985. Croom Helm, 1986
  37. Morris-Jones, W. H.. From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe: Behind and Beyond Lancaster House. N.p.: Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
  38. Kenrick, David. Decolonisation, Identity and Nation in Rhodesia, 1964-1979: A Race Against Time. Deutschland, Springer International Publishing, 2019
  39. Born government
  40. https://www.government-of-rhodesia.org/#security About the Rhodesian Intelligence Service
  41. Anthony Stuart Farson: Handbook of Global Security and Intelligence: Europe, the Middle East, and South Africa. Praeger Security International, 2008.
  42. William Gutteridge: South Africa's Defence and Security Into the 21st Century. Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. Dartmouth, 1996
  43. Information by the Rhodesian Foreign Office
  44. Freudig, Alex, & RANDnext. (2020). The annexation policy of the Republic of Rhodesia since 1980 (Short Analysis 12/20) (Version 1). Zenodo, Geneva. [1]

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